In Europe we have on the sea the IALA-A system. There are lateral buoys (on the sides of channels) and cardinal buoys (indicating a wreck, sandbank or other obstacle). Buoys are floating. Beacons are fixed in or on the ground. There are buoys with and without a light and/or top mark. Spar buoys are narrow, so they are less affected by wind, tidal current or ice. In the shallow waters of Holland branches are used to mark waterways. When the branches are tied together it means it is a conical shape (green in Europe). If the branches are not tied together, it is a cylindrical shape (red in Europe).
Shape = (Round, conical, cylindrical, pillar)
Licht characteristic and color
Color (green, red, black, yellow, white)
Name: often the name of the water
In general we can say that the quicker the flashes, the more dangerous it is.
The different light characteristics are:
Q = Quick Flash (VQ = Very Quick en UQ = Ultra Quick)
Fl = Flash (Lfl=Longflash)
ISO = Isophase (ISO 2s = 1 seconde aan en 1 seconde uit)
Oc = Occulting (group occulting means the light will be occulting multiple time in one period)
Mo = Morse code
F = Fixed
The buoyage direction in het IALA-A systeem (European seas) in the direction of the port. We often first see a safe water mark, marking the beginning of the channel. If we sail into a port we will have the green buoys at our starboard side and the red buoys at our port side. The green buoys are conical and odd numbered. The red buoys are cylindrical and even numbered. We always enter a port with the green board light (starboard) on the green buoys and with our red board light (port) on the red buoys.
GROS: Green Right On Starboard (entering a harbour.)
Sailing into a harbour at portside we see a red white horizontal striped beacon and at our starboard side a green white horizontally striped beacon.
Recommended yacht track
Recommended yacht tracks are like a bike-lane next to a channel with big ships. The yacht tracks are marked with small lateral buoys.
When we look at the port, we can use the leading lights to see if we are sailing in the middle of the channel, by looking at the leading lights. These are for example 2 lighthouses of which the first one is lower than the second. If we see the 2 lights perpendicular above each other, we are in the center of the channel on the light line.
If objects other than lights are used, we call it a leading marks, as shown in the picture below, a white patch on the coast in line with the white hotel on the hill behind it. Sometimes the channel is indicated with a sector light. This is a light that shines a different color over the different sectors. We can see in the nautical chart when we are for example in the channel, we see white light. When we are sailing on the right of the channel, we see a green light and when we are sailing to the left, we see a red light.
Cardinal buoyage marks obstakels. A North Cardinal for example means: safe at the North side and an obstacle at the South side of te buoy.
The top marks point to the black color on the buoy, that is always black and yellow. The light characteristics are like the hours on a watch.
The Long Flashing distinguishes the South Cardinal from the West Cardinal, as in high waves the difference between 6 or 9 flashes could be difficult to see.
If a channel divides into two in the IALA-A system there will be a:
- Laterale Bifurcation buoy
- Cardinale Bifurcation buoy
Example 1: Red Laterale Bifurcation buoy with the preferred channel on the right / east side
Example 2: Green Laterale Bifurcation buoy with the preferred channel on the left / west side
Example 3: Cardinal Bifurcation buoy.
These mark a special area, for anchoring, military, fishing, speedboats, regattas, etc. The color is yellow and the top mark is a cross.
Isolated danger buoy
An isolated danger is marked by a black buoy with a red belt. The top mark exists of two balls. The light is white group flashing.
Mid channel buoy
These marks are in the middle of the channel. They are red white vertically striped. The light is a ISO 8s or LFL. In case the buoy marks the beginning of a channel it is called a landfall buoy or sea buoy.
Emergency wreck marking buoy
These marks are yellow and blue vertically striped. The light is an alternating blue yellow flashing B1.0s+0.5s+Y1.0s+0.5s= 3.0s